The COVID-19 coronavirus is a public health emergency of international concern. Securing primary health care during this pandemic appears to be a significant challenge. Primary medical care has been disrupted due to closure, lack of protective equipment, hospital facilities, and the risk of hiring non-Covid patients and healthcare professionals. People with acute and chronic illnesses such as diabetes, pregnancy, obesity, chronic respiratory illnesses, cardiovascular illnesses, cancer, and mental illnesses have problems. This article looked at the challenges of primary health care in developing countries during the COVID-19 pandemic and discussed telemedicine’s role in addressing these challenges. Telemedicine can play an essential role in this epidemic by reducing the spread of viruses, making effective use of healthcare professionals’ time, and alleviating mental health problems.
Why telemedicine now?
To reduce contact with healthcare facilities, other patients, and medical personnel to reduce the risk of contracting COVID-19 and keep you and your family healthy.
What are the benefits of telemedicine?
Allows you to speak to your doctor directly by phone or video chat
It allows you to send and receive messages from your doctor via chat or email.
Remote patient monitoring is allowed.
Save travel time/transportation costs.
Reduce the number of clinic visits
When can telemedicine be used?
Contact your doctor for information on managing your health or treating a health condition present during the COVID-19 outbreak.
What Kind of Care Can You Receive Through Telemedicine?
COVID-19 Screening and Testing Recommendations and Instructions on Isolation or Quarantine
General medical care (such as spa visits, blood pressure checks, and advice for some non-emergency conditions, such as frequent rashes)
How do you contact a healthcare provider to schedule a telemedicine visit?
Contact your doctor to find out if they offer telemedicine visits and what technology you need to visit telemedicine.
What are the possible uses of telemedicine during COVID-19?
COVID-19 Symptom Triage and Verification
Telemedicine can be used to check for COVID-19 symptoms and screen patients for possible exposure. Phone scanners, online screening tools, mobile apps, or virtual telemedicine visits can be used to screen patients for COVID-19 symptoms, assess the severity of their symptoms, and determine whether to see and evaluate a patient who needs hospitalization. Or it can be administered at home. The screening algorithms can be used in telecommunications in telehealth services. For patients who may require hospitalization, mobile home health units, health care volunteers/workers, or emergency services may use cell phones, tablets, or other telehealth technologies to communicate with health care providers at the facility health care. Healthcare providers can use telemedicine to remotely assess a patient’s health and determine whether they should be in a regular hospital bed or an intensive care unit. Making this decision remotely can prevent a patient from rushing through the ER upon arrival at the hospital, limiting exposure to the ER and other health care personnel, and receiving PSE. Telemedicine can also be used to screen patients for unhealthy COVID-19 care before visiting a healthcare facility. If COVID-19 symptoms are reported during a telemedicine interview, patients may be advised to postpone untreated treatment and get tested for COVID-19 first.
Telemedicine, especially over the phone, can be used to interview COVID-19 patients, determine who they have been in contact with during the time they may have been contagious, and call their contacts to inform them. Inform and assess the need to quarantine if they develop any symptoms and tell them what to do if symptoms develop.
Monitor for COVID-19 symptoms
Patients with moderate or mild symptoms of COVID-19 can often be monitored and isolated in homes to minimize overcrowding in the health care facilities and provide hospital beds for more severe cases. By using telemedicine technologies such as apps and phones, a healthcare provider can often consult patients in monitoring their condition, provide advice, and see if a patient’s condition is worsening. They need to be examined for personalized care, like hospitalization.
Provide special care to hospital patients infected with the coronavirus.
Hospitalized patients with COVID-19 may need the care of a diverse team (such as nurses, respiratory specialists, and doctors). A team member can enter a patient’s room and use telemedicine technology (tablets and phones) to consult with the rest of the team to assess the patient’s condition, adjust respiratory therapy and others, adjust the treatment plan, and handle complications. Besides, telemedicine allows health centers to consult doctorsâ€”those with specific training or experience treating respiratory infections such as COVID-19. Tele-ICU platforms, consisting of real-time video, audio, and electronic communications between remote ICU teams (ICU and ICU physicians) and patients in remote intensive care units, can also be used to monitor critically ill patients and providing expert guidance on Care Teleradiology can also be used to consult radiologists in remote locations. Telehealth services can also be used to provide online COVID-19 training to healthcare professionals and healthcare workers.
Provide access to basic medical care for patients not infected with COVID-19
Telehealth can be used as a strategy to maintain continuity of care as much as possible and avoid the negative consequences of preventive, chronic, or routine care that could delay because of COVID-19 worries. Telehealth visit may help in determining when it makes sense to postpone a personal service or visit. Follow-up visits can be conducted by phone or online to reduce the number of face-to-face visits and outpatient facilities’ overcrowding. Service providers can use online prescribing and dispense months of medications to reduce the need for face-to-face meetings. Remote access can also help ensure access to healthcare when an in-person visit is impractical or feasible due to COVID-19 concerns. To reduce stress during COVID-19, psychosocial and behavioral health services can be offered to residents through hotlines or virtual visits.
Monitoring the recovery of COVID-19 patients
After COVID-19 patients are discharged from the hospital, healthcare providers can use telemedicine technology to track those who need further isolation at home or need monitoring for sudden deterioration or effectsâ€”long-term health by COVID-19.
What are the possible limitations of telehealth?
There are certain situations where face-to-face visits are more appropriate due to urgency, the person’s underlying health condition, or the need for a physical exam or laboratory tests to make medical decisions.
Telehealth may not be ideal for sensitive topics, especially when patients are uncomfortable or have privacy concerns.
Limited access to technological devices (such as phones, tablets, and computers) or healthcare providers or patients’ connection can make remote healthcare services impossible for some people. This is especially true for people who live in rural areas.
Depending on the platform used, some healthcare workers or patients may be less familiar with technology and may prefer a face-to-face visit.
Virtual visits may not be readily accepted in some cultures rather than face-to-face visits from healthcare workers or patients.
Effects of COVID-19 on telemedicine
The main strategy for controlling health care booms is “advanced triage” – triage of patients before they arrive at the emergency room (ED). Direct-to-consumer telemedicine, a 21st-century approach to screening relay that enables patients to be assessed efficiently, focuses on the patient, leads to self-quarantine and protects patients, physicians, and other exhibition members patient community. Doctors and patients can communicate 24 hours a day via smartphones or computers equipped with a webcam. Respiratory problems, which could be early signs of Covid-19, are among the most common conditions evaluated with this approach. Healthcare providers can easily access detailed travel and exposure records. Automated detection algorithms can be integrated into the registration process, and local epidemiological information can be used to standardize detection and exercise patterns among service providers.
Rather than expecting all the outpatient practices in keeping pace evolving rapidly with recommendations that pertain to Covid-19, healthcare systems have developed automated logic flows (robots) that direct moderate to high-risk patients to triage lines for nurses to use. However, the videos also allow patients to schedule visits. For accredited or on-demand service providers to avoid travel to personal foster cares. This approach requires central coordination with practice personnel and state and local testing agencies. Practices mustn’t routinely refer patients to emergency centers, emergency centers, or offices, because doing so puts other patients and healthcare providers at risk.
Patients providing personal care should be isolated and positively assessed for high-risk characteristics immediately to avoid further contact with patients and healthcare workers. Before the Covid-19 outbreak, many program managers changed the “provider on detection” form (rapid initial assessment and testing) to allow a remote service provider to register. For example, Aurora Health has a partnership with commercial telemedicine providers that have closed, and others have. Develop your software for this purpose. In an emergency, web conferencing software can be deployed relatively quickly using a secure open line from the doctor’s triage room. Covering multiple sites with single telemedicine can overcome some of the challenges of the workforce. However, this isn’t easy to do if your software does not have a queue.
Tablet devices can be cleaned between patients with well-defined infection control procedures. In an outpatient setting, patients who have tested positive at presentation can be given a tablet and isolated in an exam room. A telemedicine visit can be completed without exposing employees to the use of commercial systems or paired tablets. This allows communication with the physician through a dedicated connection. Given the challenges in the supply chain, we quickly repurposed and made existing tablets available.
We hope that Covid-19 tests will be widely available soon, but initially, patients who were good enough to be sent home there were quarantined while testing at home. However, this system works for well-off patients who cannot rule out exposure from healthcare workers to ill patients needing surgery. Similar television systems are also used for hospital patients to reduce exposure risks for visitors and staff.
Electronic Intensive Care Unit (E-ICU) monitoring programs allow nurses and physicians to monitor 60 to 100 intensive care patients remotely at various hospitals. Technological and human complexity makes it impossible to establish such a program in the short term. Still, the rapid introduction of a tablet approach can reduce healthcare workers’ exposure to infected patients in the ICU.
Community paramedics or integrated mobile healthcare programs allow patients to treat at home, with virtually the highest level of virtual medical support available. The ETHAN (Telehealth and Emergency Navigation) project in Houston used medical supervision in telemedicine to enhance the personalized care provided by 911 responders and reduce ED transfer. In light of Covid-19, Avera Health is preparing to send phone calls to home care units directly to patients and coordinate home testing. For patients who are ill at home, these programs can facilitate pre-hospital transportation assessment, resulting in the emergency department bypassing them and being transferred directly to a hospital bed, thereby reducing exposure for hospital workers.
Many medical decisions are cognitive, and telemedicine can provide quick access to subspecialists. This approach has been studied extensively in stroke, with systems such as Jefferson Health, Cleveland Clinic, and the University of Pittsburgh providing virtual emergency neurological care in a large number of hospitals. The Mount Sinai system uses professionals at eight hospitals and more than 300 sites to conduct virtual emergency consultations and distribute work among subspecialists. Barriers to implementing these programs are related mainly to the payment of wages, certification, and skilled workers’ hiring.
Reports that up to 100 healthcare workers in a facility are quarantined at home for exposure to Covid-19 have raised concerns about the workforce’s capacity. In telephoto or direct-to-consumer facilities, isolated physicians can cover these services and free other physicians from personal care. In private clinics, physicians can also remotely isolate themselves for patient care. The challenge is that members of other health professions (nurses, paramedics, paramedics) also contribute to personal care, and telemedicine cannot replace them.
These visits can be done with both the patient and the doctor at home, greatly limiting travel and exposure and allowing for well-established patients’ ongoing care. Online and remote training modules are available for physicians or patients who need training or timely assistance the first time they contact.
The main obstacles to maintaining standard telemedicine care requires a change unlikely to occur at the federal government level. Medicaid reimbursement, Commercial reimbursement, and documentation are the prerogatives of the states. Fortunately, the Centers for Medicaid and Medicare Service and a few local commercial payment providers have changed payment policies according to Covid-19. We hope others will follow suit.
Disasters and epidemics present unique challenges to health care. Telemedicine will not solve all problems, it works well in settings where the infrastructure remains intact, and doctors are available to care for patients. Pay, regulatory structures, government licenses, and credentials in hospitals and program implementation take time to work. However, healthcare systems that have already invested in telemedicine are in an excellent position to ensure that Covid-19 patients receive the care they need. In this case, it could be a practically perfect solution.